Published in Applied Research
Formulation and characterization of functional foods based on fruit and vegetable residue flour

Fruits and vegetables are extensively processed and the residues are often discarded. However, due to their rich composition, they could be used to minimize food waste.

Researchers from the Department of Food Technology, Nutrition School, Food and Nutrition Master Program at the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) have published a study on-line in June on Journal of Food Science Technology aimed to develop food products based on the solid residue generated from the manufacture of an isotonic beverage.

This beverage was produced based on integral exploitation of several fruits and vegetables: orange, passion fruit, watermelon, lettuce, courgette, carrot, spinach, mint, taro, cucumber and rocket. The remaining residue was processed into flour and its functional properties were evaluated. The fruit and vegetable residue (FVR) flour was incorporated with different levels (20 to 35 %) into biscuits and cereal bars. The proximate composition, microbiological stability until 90 days and consumer acceptance were analyzed. The FVR flour presented a higher water holding capacity than oil holding capacity, respectively 7.43 and 1.91 g g−1 of flour, probably associated with its high levels of carbohydrates (53 %) and fibres (21.5 %). Biscuits enriched with 35 % of FVR flour presented significantly higher fibre, ranging from 57 % to 118 % and mineral contents, from 25 % to 37 % than when only 20 % was added. Cereal bars presented about 75 % of fibres and variable mineral contents between 14 % and 37 %. The incorporation of FVR did not change the fat content. 

The microbiological examinations are within acceptable limits according to international regulation. The incorporation of FVR flour did not impair consumer acceptance, the sensory attributes averaged around 6. The chemical, microbiological and sensorial results of the designed products attested for an alternative towards applying and reducing agro-industrial wastes.

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