Monday, 13 July 2015 08:09

Onion skin for health benefit of bread

Onion skin (OS) is an environmentally problematic waste that is extensively produced during onion bulb processing. Noteworthy, it contains high amounts of bioaccessible and bioavailable compounds with well documented biological activity.
Polish Researchers published on Food Research International journal a work where they estimated the effect of OS-supplementation and gastrointestinal processing of wheat bread on its potential anticancer activity and ability to modify activity of lipoxygenase (LOX), xanthine oxidase (XO), catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD).
Gastrointestinal processing releases XO and LOX inhibitors and CAT activators from supplemented bread. Most importantly, synergism between these compounds derived from bread and OS was found. Gastrointestinally adsorbed 3% OS-supplemented bread extract exerted a considerably stronger cytostatic and anti-invasive effect on gastric cancer AGS cells than its gastrointestinally digested and buffer masticated counterparts. These effects only partly correlated with the phenolic content of the extracts and their antioxidative activities. Gastrointestinal digestion and adsorption slightly influence the bioactivity of non-supplemented bread extracts. However, the activity of gastrointestinally adsorbed, OS-supplemented wheat bread extract switched from cytostatic and anti-invasive to cytoprotective upon DMSO extraction.
These data directly show a complex network of synergetic and antagonistic effects of single phenolic compounds from onion skin and wheat bread. They indicate that the bioactivity of phenolic compounds and potentially beneficial effects of wheat bread fortification with onion skin may be regulated by subtle interactions between OS and bread phenolic compounds, and food matrix. They are modulated by gastrointestinal processing.
These findings may open perspectives for the introduction of onion skin into wheat bread supplementation which would increase its pro-healthy properties.
Published in Applied Research
Wednesday, 10 June 2015 08:08

Improving the aroma of gluten-free bread

Gluten-free bread (GF) is different from wheat (W) or wheat-rye bread (WR) in terms of its sensory qualities, possessing not only a barely acceptable texture but also a weak aroma. Polish Researchers from Poznan University found a method to improve the aroma and the results were published in LWT - Food Science and Technology. 63, (1): 706-713, 2015.
A total of 77 volatile compounds, including alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, pyrazines, furans, pyrroles, and others, were detected bin the crust and crumb of the analyzed samples using GC/MS. A total of 41 volatile compounds were identified in the W bread, 54 in the WR bread, and 33 in the GF bread. It was found that the most important feature of gluten-free bread flavor is its lack of key bread compounds, specifically pyrazines and 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline. The addition of different amino acid and sugar pairs to the dough prior to baking made these deficiencies lower and, in the case of the proline and glucose pair, this was achieved to a sufficient degree. Multivariate analysis of data from chromatograph ratings of volatile compounds showed the similarity of samples with the addition of this pair of precursors (proline and glucose) to wheat bread, just like PCA in sensory profiling.
For the consumer group consisting of patients with celiac disease the aroma of such gluten-free bread was more desirable than control one.
Published in Applied Research
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